Overview Of CGH

The C.A.R.E Clinic (South Africa) led by Dr Ramdeo have accomplished another milestone by achieving their first CGH pregnancy, believed to be the first in Africa and South Africa. To date, many babies have been born with numerous ongoing pregnancies.

This advance in technology could bring hope to many couples struggling to have a baby and going through many IVF cycles.

Array CGH is available at the C.A.R.E Clinic – the first in South Africa and globally the first in Africa. Array CGH is executed from start to finish at the C.A.R.E Clinic. For more information, please contact the C.A.R.E Clinic.

Since 2010, C.A.R.E Clinic has offered PGS, using Array CGH, to patients undergoing IVF treatment. Over the years, they have mastered the technique allowing them to select chromosomally normal (euploid) embryos and exclude those which are Aneuploid – followed by embryo transfer of only euploid embryos. As a result, the number of successful pregnancies and live births improved while reducing the occurrence of miscarriage. Care Clinic also became the first in South Africa to produce a chromosomally normal baby following PGS (Array CGH).

PGS Using Next Generation Sequencing

Next Generation Sequencing describes DNA Sequencing technologies that have come to revolutionize genomic research. NGS platforms enable rapid sequencing of base pairs in DNA/RNA and supports a wide range of applications which include reproductive Health Research (PGS/PGD), Inherited Disease Research, Cancer Research, HLA Typing etc.

Care Clinic has always aimed to be at the cutting edge of technology and has now adopted a NGS platform to advance its current PGS services. PGS using NGS technology allows rapid, reliable and comprehensive aneuploidy detection across all 24 chromosomes which include 22 autosomes and X/Y chromosomes. Automated systems reduce sample manipulation by operator and chance of human error, providing a more accurate result.

  • What is array comparative genomic hybridization?

    Array CGH is an advance in technology and is a new screening test that detects a loss or gain of chromosomes. It is more sensitive than the standard test (FISH) which has the limitation of only testing 4 or 5 chromosomes at a time. Array CGH can analyze all 46 chromosomes in a single test and may discover an abnormality that would not have been detected by FISH.

    To understand how array CGH works, you have to understand a little about DNA, genes and chromosomes

  • What is a chromosome?

    A chromosome is a structure that contains tightly packaged DNA and genes. Humans have 46 chromosomes made up of 23 pairs. A mother passes 23 chromosomes to her child through her egg and a father passes 23 chromosomes through his sperm. There is one pair of sex chromosomes (two X chromosomes for females and one X and one Y chromosome for males) and 22 pairs of autosomes (non-sex chromosomes). Any alteration in the number of chromosomes can be attributed to changes that can occur during the formation of reproductive cells (eggs and sperm), in early foetal development or in any cell after birth. Aneuploidy is a chromosome loss or gain and the term euploid refers to a complete set of 46 chromosomes.

  • How does array CGH work?

    Array CGH compares the egg or embryo’s DNA with a control (normal) DNA sample and identifies differences between the 2 sets of DNA. In this way, a loss or a gain of chromosomes in the egg or embryo DNA can be identified. The embryo DNA and control DNA are combined with green and red dye respectively and placed onto a slide containing thousands of spots of human genes corresponding to specific regions of chromosomes for analysis. The slide is scanned and the red to green ratio will determine if the DNA is normal or if there is a loss or gain of chromosomes. Euploid (normal) embryos are then selected and transferred improving the chances of a successful pregnancy.

  • Who should have array CGH testing?

    Array CGH is suitable for all patients. Array CGH is helpful in younger women to diagnose the cause of repeated miscarriage, failed IVF or unexplained infertility. In most cases, it is the egg, rather than the sperm that determines the chromosomal integrity of the embryo. In older women approaching the age of 40, the number of eggs produced with abnormal chromosomes increases. These eggs will produce abnormal embryos. However if the normal embryos are identified, there is a higher chance that can result in a successful pregnancy. Also, the risk of miscarriage increases with advanced maternal age.

    Array CGH is suitable for men who have been shown to have sperm at risk of carrying abnormal chromosomes, couples who have had a previous pregnancy with abnormal chromosomes or a child with birth defects as well as those with an inherited genetic disorder.

  • What are the advantages and limitations of array CGH?

    Array CGH testing provides the most comprehensive analysis of chromosomes to date. All 46 chromosomes can be analyzed in a single test. Euploid (normal) embryos can be selected improving the chance of a successful pregnancy for couples.

    The limitations of array CGH is that this test does not detect balanced chromosome translocations. This is because balanced chromosome translocations do not result in any loss or gain of chromosomal material. Array CGH cannot detect tiny changes such as a single base pair deletion.

    Biopsies of the embryos are performed on day 3 or day 5, results will be discussed with the patient on the morning of transfer.

Comparative Genomic Hybridization

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